Material Selection

Temperature
Range
Material Bolt/ Nut
100C - 200C A320B8/Gr .8
46C - 100C A320L7/Gr .4
0C - 45C A320L7/Gr .4
SNB7/S45C
0C - 300C A307 SS400
300C - 400C A193B7/Gr .2H
B7/2H
SNB7/S45C
400C - 550C A193B16/Gr .4
 
Temperature
Range
Material Bolt/ Nut
550C - 650C A193B8/Gr .8
A193B8M/Gr .8M
650C A453Gr.660,
A453Gr.660/Gr 8C
750C Hastalloy B & C
1000C Chromium Alloy


High Temperature High Tension Alloy Bolt Material  Chemical & Mechanical Requirements

ASTM A193 B7 (Cr- Mo AISI 4140,4142,4145 )
This material is considered as the most suitable  for bolts to be used at temperature below 450 . C, with a minimum effect on its structural strength during application at a high temperature.
The material has the following chemical properties and physical Characteristics.
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Mo
0.37-0.49 0.65-1.10 0.035 Max 0.04 Max 0.15-0.35 0.75-1.20 0.15-0.25
Dia Minimum
Tempering Temperature
( F )
Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
( MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
( MPa)
Elongation in
4D
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
21/2" and under 1,100
(593 C )
125(860) 105(720) 16 50 321HB
or 35 HRc
over 21/2" to 4" 1,100
(593 C )
115(795) 95(655) 16 50 302HB
or 35 HRc
over   4" to 7" 1,100
(593 C )
100(690) 75(515) 18 50 277HB
or 29 HRc
   
ASTM A1193 B7M (Cr- Mo AISI 4140,4142,4145 )
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Mo
0.37-0.49 0.65-1.10 0.035 Max 0.04 Max 0.15-0.35 0.75-1.20 0.15-0.25
Dia Minimum
Tempering Temperature
F (C)
Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
MPa
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
21/2" and under 1150
(620 C )
100(690) 80(550) 18 50 235HB, 99HRB

ASTM A193 B16 (Cr- Mo -V )

This material is considered as the most suitable  for bolts to be used at temperature below 450 . C,even at a high  temperature range, the material has superior physical characterestics compared to ASTM A193 B7 previously mentioned.
The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Mo Al V
0.36-0.47 0.45-0.70 0.035 Max 0.04 Max 0.15-0.35 0.80-1.15 0.50-0.65 0.015Max 0.25-0.35
Dia Minimum
Temperature
F (C)
Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
( MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
( MPa)
Elongation in
4D
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
21/2" and under 1200(650) 125(860) 105(725) 18 50 321HB
or 35 HRC
over
2
1/2" to 4"
1200(650) 110(760) 95(655) 17 45 302HB
or 33 HRC
over 4" to 7" 1200(650 ) 100(690) 85(586) 16 45 227HB
or 29 HRC

ASTM A193 B5 (5% Cr AISI 501)
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Mo
0.10 max 1.00 max 0.040 max 0.030 Max 1.0 Max 4.00 - 6.00 0.40 -0.65
Dia Minimum
Tempering Temperature
F (C)
Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
up to 4" incl 1.100 (593 ) 100(690) 80(550) 16 50 -

ASTM A193 B8 (AISI 304) B8A  Chemical Requirements
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 18.00 - 20.00 8.00 -10.50

ASTM A193 B8C (AISI 347) B8CA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Columbium +
Tantalum
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 17.00 - 19.00 9.00 -13.00 10 x Carbon
content, min

ASTM A193 B8N (AISI 304N) B8NA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Nitrogen
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 18.00 - 20.00 8.00 -10.50 0.10 - 0.16

ASTM A193 B8MN (AISI 316N) B8MNA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo Nitrogen
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 16.00 - 18.00 10.00 -14.00 2.00 - 3.00 0.10 - 0.16

ASTM A193 B8P (AISI 305) B8PA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 17.00 - 19.00 10.50 -13.00

ASTM A193 B8T (AISI 321) B8TA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Titanium
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 17.00 - 19.00 9.00 -12.00 5 x Carbon
content, min

ASTM A193 B8R B8RA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo Nitrogen Columbium
+ Tanalum
V
0.06 Max 4.00 - 6.00 0.040 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 20.50 - 23.50 11.50 -13.50 1.50 - 3.00 0.20 - 0.40 0.10 - 0.30 0.10 - 0.30

ASTM A193 B8S B8SA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Nitrogen
0.10 Max 7.00 - 9.00 0.040 Max 0.030 Max 3.50 - 4.50 16.00 - 18.00 8.00 - 9.00 0.08 - 0.18

ASTM A193 B8LN, B8LNA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo Nitrogen
0.030 Max 2.00 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 18.00 - 20.00 8.00 - 10.50 - 0.10 - 0.16

B8MLN, B8MLNA
 
C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo Nitrogen
0.030 Max 2.00 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 16.00 - 18.00 10.00 - 14.00 2.00 - 3.00 0.10 - 0.16

CLASS I: B8, B8C, B8M, B8P, B8T, B8LN, B8MLN Mechanical Requirements
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
All diameters Carbide Solution Treated 75(515) 30(205) 30 50 223 HB or 96HRB
(3/4" in & smaller, 241HB or 100 HRB)

CLASS IA: B8A, B8CA, B8MA, B8PA, B8TA, B8LNA, B8MLNA, B8NA, B8MN4
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
All diameters Carbide Solution Treated in the finished conditions 75(515) 30(205) 30 50 192 HB
or 90HRB

CLASS IB: B8N, B8MN
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
All diameters Carbide Solution Treated 80(550) 35(240) 30 40 223 HB or 96HRB
(3/4" in & smaller, 241HB or 100 HRB)

CLASS IC: B8R
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
All diameters Carbide Solution Treated 100(690) 55(380) 35 55 271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS IC: B8RA
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
All diameters Carbide Solution Treated in the finished condition 100(690) 55(380) 35 55 271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS IC: B8S
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
All diameters Carbide Solution Treated 95(655) 50(345) 35 55 271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS IC: B8SA
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
All diameters Carbide Solution Treated  in the finished condition 95(655) 50(345) 35 55 271 HB
or 28 HRC

CLASS 2: B8, B8C, B8P, B8T, B8N
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
3/4" & under Carbide Solution Treated  and
strain
Hardened
125(860) 100(690) 12 35 321 HB
or 35 HRC
over 3/4" & 1" incl 115(795) 80(550) 15 35
over 1" & 11/4" incl 105(725) 65(450) 20 35
11/4" to 11/2" incl 100(690) 50(345) 28 45

CLASS 2: B8MN / B8M
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
3/4" & under Carbide Solution Treated and
strain
Hardened
110(760) 95(655) 15 45 321 HB
or 35 HRC
over 3/4" & 1" incl 100(690) 80(550) 20 45
over 1" & 11/4" incl 95(655) 65(450) 25 45
11/4" to 11/2" incl 95(655) 75(515) 25 40

CLASS 2B: B8M2
 
Dia Heat Treatement Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardnessmax
2" & under Carbide Solution Treated and
strain
Hardened
95(655) 75(515) 25 40 321 HB
or 35 HRC
over 2" & 21/2" incl 90(620) 65(450) 30 40
over 21/2" to 3" incl 80(550) 55(380) 30 40


Low-Temperature Alloy Steel Bolt Material  Chemical & Mechanical Requirements

ASTM A320-L7 (Cr- Mo AISI 4140,4142,4145 )
This material is considered as the most suitable  for bolts to be used at temperature 0-(-)100   C,
The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows:

C Mn P S Si Cr Mo Impact Energy Absorption Requirements
0.38-0.48 0.75-1.00 0.035 Max 0.04 Max 0.15-0.35 0.80-1.10 0.15-0.25 Minimum Impact Value Minimum Impact Value
Dia Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
  Required for Average of Each set of three specimens

ft lbf [J]
Permitted for Specimen only of a set

ft lbf [J

21/2" and under 125
( 860 )
105
( 725 )
16 50 277-321HB
for reference
  20[27] 15[20]
ASTM A 320 L7M
Dia. Heat Treatment Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Reduction of
Area
min %
Hardness
max
21/2" and under Quenched and tempered at 1,150   F
(620   C) min
100(690) 80(550) 18 50 235HB
or 99HRB

ASTM A320 B8 (18Cr-8Ni AISI 304)
This material is considered as the most suitable for bolts and nuts to be used at temperatures (-)100-(-)200   C The chemical properties are as follows:

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni  
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 18.00-20.00 8.00-10.50  

ASTM A320 B8M

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 16.00-18.00 10.00-14.00 2.00-3.00

ASTM A320 B8C

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Columbium + Tantulum
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 17.00-19.00 9.00-13.00 10 * Carbon content, min

ASTM A320 B8T

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Titanium
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 17.00-19.00 9.00-12.00 5 * Carbon content, min

Super High Temperature Resistant Bolt Material Chemical & Mechanical Requirements
This material is considered as suitable for bolts to be used as temperature below 1,200   F (650   C) and the material has superior resistence to oxidation and shrinkage to those high temperature resistant bolt material mentioned so far. The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows:

ASTM A453 Gr. 660

C Mn P S Si Cr
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.040 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 24.00-27.00
Cr Mo Ti Al V Boron
13.50-16.00 1.00-1.50 1.90-2.35 0.35 Max 0.10-0.50 0.0010 - 0.010
CLASS Tensile
Strength
min, ks
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
4x Dia.
min,%
Reduction of
Area
min, %
Brinell Hardness Number
A,B and C 130(895) 85(585) 15 18 248-341 (min 99HRB, max 37HRC)

ASTM A453 Gr. 651

C Mn P S Si Cr
0.28 - 0.35 0.75 -1.50 max 0.040 max 0.030 0.30 - 0.80 8.00-11.00
Cr Mo Ti W Cb Cu
18.00-21.00 1.00-1.75 0.10 - 0.35 1.00 - 1.75 025 - 0.60 max 0.50
CLASS Tensile
Strength
min, ks
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
4x Dia
min, %
Reduction of
Area
min, %
Brinell Hardness Number
A ( 3" and under) 100(690) 70(485) 18 35 217-277 (min 95HRB, max 28HRC)
A (over 3")   60(415)      
B ( 3" and under) 95(655) 60(415) 18 35 217-277 (min 95HRB, max 28HRC)
B (over 3")   50(345)      

ASTM B408 (800,800H)

Ni Cr Fe Mu C Cu Si S Al Ti
30.0 - 35.0 19.0 - 23.0 *39.5 min 1.5 Max 0.10 Max 0.75 Max 1.0 Max 0.015 Max 0.15 - 0.60 0.15 - 0.60

* = Iron shall be determined arithmetically by differenece

CLASS CONDITION Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(
MPa)
Yield
Strength. min, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
%
min
800 (all sizes) Hot finished rods and bars 80(550) 35(240) 25
(all sizes) Cold drawn and (annealed) Hot finished rods and bars 75(520) 30(205) 30
800H (all sizes) Cold drawn and (annealed) Hot finished rods and bars 65(450) 25(170) 30

HASTALLOY C/ASME SB336,UNS N10002

Class Ni Co Cr Mo W Fe Si Mn C
C Balance < 2.5 16 16 4 5 < 1.00 < 1.00 < 0.08

Monel K-500

Ni C Mn Fe S Si Cu Al Ti
63 - 70 0.25 Max 1.50 Max 2.00 Max 0.01 Max 0.5 Max balance 2.3 - 3.15 0.35 - 0.85

Monel 400

Ni C Mn Fe S Si Cu
63 - 70 0.30 Max 2.0 Max 2.5 Max 0.024 Max 0.050 Max balance

Nut Material Chemical & Mechanical Requirements

ASTM A194 Gr.2H
This is the material for bolts made from ASTM A-193 B7, considered to be used with suitable heat treatment. The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows :

C Mn P S Si Brinell Hardness Rockwell Hardness
0.40 Min 1.00 Max 0.040 Max 0.050 Max 0.40 Max To 11/2" incl 248 to 352 24 to 38 HRC
Over 11/2",212 to 352 38 HRC Max

ASTM A194 Gr.2HM

C Mn P S Si Brinell Hardness Rockwell Hardness
0.40 Min 1.00 Max 0.040 Max 0.050 Max 0.40 Max 159 to 237 22 HRC Max

ASTM A194 Gr.4
This material is considered as the most suitable for nuts,when they are used with bolts made from ASTM A-193 B16 and A-320 L7. Even at high temperature range. then material has superior physical characteristics to those ASTMA A-194 2H previously mentioned. The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows :

C Mn P S Si Mo Brinell Hardness Rockwell Hardness
0.40 - 0.50 0.70 - 0.90 0.035 Max 0.04 Max 0.15 - 0.35 0.20 - 0.30 248 to 352 24 to 38 HRC

ASTM A194 Gr. 8 (AISI 304)
This is nut material for bolts made from ASTM A-193 B8, considered to be used with suitable heat treatment. The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows :

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Brinell Hardness Rockwell Hardness
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 18.00 - 20.00 8.00 - 10.50 126 to 300 60 to
105 HRB

ASTM A194 Gr. 8M (AISI 316)
This is nut material for bolts made from ASTM A-193 B8M and A-320 B8M, considered to be used with suitable heat treatment. The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows :

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Mo Brinell Hardness Rockwell Hardness
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 16.00 - 18.00 10.00 - 14.00 2.00 - 3.00 126 to 300 60 to
105 HRB

ASTM A194 Gr. 8C (AISI 347)
This is nut material for bolts made from ASTM A-193 B8C, A-320 B8Cand A-320 B8T, considered to be used with suitable heat treatment. The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows :

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Cb + Ta Brinell Hardness Rockwell Hardness
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030  Max 1.00 Max 17.00 - 19.00 9.00 - 13.00 10 * C% min 126 to 300 60 to
105 HRB

ASTM A194 Gr. 8T (AISI 321)
This is nut material for bolts made from ASTM A-193 B8Tand A-320 B8T, considered to be used with suitable heat treatment. The chemical properties and physical characteristics are as follows :

C Mn P S Si Cr Ni Ti Brinell Hardness Rockwell Hardness
0.08 Max 2.00 Max 0.045 Max 0.030 Max 1.00 Max 17.00 - 19.00 9.00 - 12.00 5 C% min 126 to 300 60 to
105 HRB
 

ASTM A307
This material is suitable in structural application where nominal strength alongwith weldability is required.

Grade P S Tensile
Strength
min, ksi
(MPa)
Yield
Strength. min,
0.2% offset, Ksi
(MPa)
Elongation in
2"
min %
Hardness
max
A 0.06 Max 0.15 Max 60 (415) - 18 121 - 241 BHN
B 0.04 Max 0.05 Max 60 - 100
(415 - 690)
- 18 121 - 212 BHN
C - - 58 - 80
(400 - 550)
36(50) 23 Not Required

ASTM A563
This specification of material is used for manufactoring nuts for balts/styds made from ASTM A307
Grade C Mn (Max) P  (Max) S (Max)
O,A,B,C 0.58 Max - 0.13 -
D 0.58 Max 0.27 0.048 0.058
DH 0.18-0.58 0.57 0.048 0.058
Grade Hardness Required
O 103 to 302 BHN
A 116 to 302 BHN
B 90 to 121 BHN
C 143 to 352 BHN
D 159 to 352 BHN
DH 248 to 352 BHN